WWLLN Publications

For the full list of WWLLN articles go to Published_Articles_referring_to_WWLLN.htm including 2,200 published articles and at least 60 advanced degree theses using WWLLN data

(These articles each depend on WWLLN data)

Note to Authors: Please include this statement in your papers using WWLLN data:
"Acknowledgement: The authors wish to thank the World Wide Lightning Location Network (http://wwlln.net), a collaboration among over 50 universities and institutions, for providing the lightning location data used in this paper."

This list (below) is the original WWLLN bibliobraphy, maintained until about 2015 but now incomplete. Please note link above for a current list of all WWLLN papers and theses.

When it was still called the 'TOGA' network:
0. Dowden, R. L. and J.B. Brundell, Improvements relating to the location of lightning discharges, Australian Patent Office, patent number AU 200071483 Al, Application Date 2000.11.08, Publication date:2001.05.17. 1.4MB PDF ... patent link

1. VLF lightning location by time of group arrival (TOGA) at multiple sites Dowden, R.L., Brundell, J.B.; Rodger, C.J. Source: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, v 64, n 7, May 2002, p 817-30 PDF of text (0.6MB)

After WWLLN got its name:

2. WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Brazil Lay, E.H. (Dept. of Earth & Space Sci., Washington Univ., Seattle, WA, USA); Holzworth, R.H.; Rodger, C.J.; Thomas, J.N.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Dowden, R.L. Source: Geophysical Research Letters, v 31, n 3, 16 Feb. 2004, p 5 pp. PDF of text (2.7 MB)

3. Rodger, C. J., J. B. Brundell, R. L. Dowden, and N. R. Thomson, 2004: Location accuracy of long distance VLF lightning location network. Ann. Geophys., 22, 747-758. PDF of text (4.7 MB)

4. Balloon observations of temporal variation in the global circuit compared to global lightning activity, Holzworth, R.H. (Earth & Space Sci., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA); Bering, E.A., III; Kokorowski, M.F.; Lay, E.H.; Reddell, B.; Kadokura, A.; Yamagishi, H.; Sato, N.; Ejiri, M.; Hirosawa, H.; Yamagami, T.; Torii, S.; Tohyama, F.; Nakagawa, M.; Okada, T.; Dowden, R.L. Source: Advances in Space Research, v 36, n 11, 2005, p 2223-8 PDF of text (0.3MB)

5. Rodger, C. J., J. B. Brundell, and R. L. Dowden, 2005: Location accuracy of VLF World Wide Lightning Location (WWLL) network: Post-algorithm upgrade. Ann. Geophys., 23, 277-290. PDF of text (4.9 MB)

6. Yair, Y., C. Price, B. Ziv, P. L. Israelevich, D. D. Sentman, F. T. Sao-Sabbas, A. D. Devir, M. Sato, C. J. Rodger, M. Moalem, E. Greenberg, and O. Yaron, Space Shuttle observation of an unusual transient atmospheric emission, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(2), 10.1029/2004GL021551, 2005. PDF of text (0.3 MB)

7. Collier, A. B., A. R. W. Hughes, J. Lichtenberger, and P. Steinbach, Seasonal and diurnal variation of lightning activity over southern Africa and correlation with European whistler observations, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 529 - 542, 2006. PDF of text (1.7 MB)

8. Performance assessment of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), using the Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA) array as ground-truth, Abram R. Jacobson Robert H. Holzworth Jeremiah Harlin Richard L. Dowden Erin H. Lay, (Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (AMS), V.23, pp. 1082-92, (August 2006). PDF of text (1.0 MB)

9. Local Time Variation in Land/Ocean Lightning Count Rates as Measured by the World Wide Lightning Location Network, Erin H. Lay, Abram R. Jacobson, Robert H. Holzworth, Craig J. Rodger, Richard L. Dowden, for J. Geophys. Res.,JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 112, D13111, doi:10.1029/2006JD007944, 2007 PDF 0.3 MB

10. Detection efficiency of the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN): Initial case study, Craig J. Rodger, Simon Werner, James B. Brundell, Erin H. Lay, Neil R. Thomson, Robert H. Holzworth, Richard L. Dowden Ann. Geophys., 24, 3197–3214, 2006 PDF (6.4MB )

11. A Very Active Sprite-Producing Storm Observed Over Argentina, J. N. Thomas et al, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88, No. 10, 6 March 2007, pp. 117-128. PDF (1.1 MB)

12. Lightning activity analyses with respect to the SPCZ location, P. Ortega and T. Guignes, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L11807, doi:10.1029/2007GL029730, 2007. PDF of text (0.4 MB)

13. Simultaneous Imaging and ELF/VLF Measurements of a Sprite-Halo Driven by a Negative Lightning Discharge over Argentina, M.J. Taylor, M. Bailey, P.-D. Pautet, S. A. Cummer, N. Jaugey, J. N. Thomas, N.N. Solorzano, S. Sao Sabbas, R. Holzworth, Pinto and N. Schuch, for GRL (if it fits, else JGR) (2007)

14. East African lightning as a precursor of Atlantic hurricane activity, Colin Price, Yoav Yair, and Mustafa Asfur, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L09805, doi:10.1029/2006GL028884, 2007 PDF text (1.0 MB)

15. A Three Magnetic Direction Finder Network for a Local Warning Device, P. Orgega, Journal of Lightning Research, V. 2, PP. 18-27, 2007 PDF text 0.5 MB

16. Kumar, S. (Univ. of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji); Anil, D.; Kishore, A.; Ramachandran, V., Whistlers observed at low-latitude ground-based VLF facility in Fiji, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, v 69, n 12, Aug. 2007, 1366-76

17. GLOBAL STUDIES OF TROPICAL CYCLONES USING THE WORLD WIDE LIGHTNING LOCATION NETWORK, Natalia N. Solorzano, Jeremy N. Thomas, and Robert H. Holzworth, Paper presented at AMS 2008 meeting in New Orleans (January 2008) Solorzano et al 0.2MB

18. Seeking sprite-induced signatures in remotely sensed middle atmosphere NO2, E. Arnone, A. Kero, B. M. Dinelli, C.-F. Enell, N. F. Arnold, E. Papandrea, Craig J. Rodger, M. Carlotti, M. Ridolfi, and E. Turunen, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35, L05807, doi:10.1029/2007GL031791, 2008 Arnone et al, (0.2MB)

19. Rare measurements of a sprite with halo event driven by a negative lightning discharge over Argentina, M. J. Taylor, M. A. Bailey, P. D. Pautet, S. A. Cummer, N. Jaugey, J. N. Thomas, N. N. Solorzano, F. Sao Sabbas, R. H. Holzworth, O. Pinto, and N. J. Schuch, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35, L14812, doi:10.1029/2008GL033984, 2008 ( PDF text 0.2 MB)

20. Investigating Lightning-to-Ionosphere Energy Coupling Based on VLF Lightning Propagation Characterization, Erin H. Lay, PhD Dissertation, Physics Dept. Univ. of Washington, 2008. ( PDF 2.6MB)

21. Lightning stroke distance estimation from single station observation and validation with WWLLN data, V. Ramachandran, J. N. Prakash, A. Deo, and S. Kumar, Ann. Geophys., 25, 1509–1517, 2007 ( PDF Text 0.6MB )

22. Subionospheric early VLF perturbations observed at Suva: VLF detection of red sprites in the day?, Sushil Kumar,1 Abhikesh Kumar,1 and Craig J. Rodger, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 113, A03311, doi:10.1029/2007JA012734, 2008. ( PDF Text 4.3MB )

23.Rodger, C J, J B Brundell, R H Holzworth, and E H Lay, Growing Detection Efficiency of the World Wide Lightning Location Network, Am. Inst. Phys. Conf. Proc., Coupling of thunderstorms and lightning discharges to near-Earth space: Proceedings of the Workshop, Corte (France), 23-27 June 2008, 1118, 15-20, DOI:10.1063/1.3137706, 2009. ( PDF text 0.3 MB )

24. B. J. Hazelton, B. W. Grefenstette, D. M. Smith, J. R. Dwyer, X.-M. Shao, S. A. Cummer, T. Chronis, E. H. Lay, and R. H. Holzworth, Spectral dependence of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes on source distance, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 36, L01108, doi:10.1029/2008GL035906, 2009 ( PDF 0.2MB )

25. E.Williams, W. Lyons, Y. Hobara, V. Mushtak, N. Asencio, R. Boldi, J. Bor, S. Cummer, E. Greenberg, M. Hayakawa, R. Holzworth, V. Kotroni, J. Li, C. Morales, T. Nelson, C. Price, B. Russell, G. Satori K. Shirahata, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamashita, Ground-Based Detection of Sprites and their Parent Lightning Flashes over Africa during the 2006 AMMA Campaign, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, (accepted) 2009 ( PDF 1MB )

26. E Arnone, A Kero, C-F Enell, M Carlotti, Craig J Rodger, E Papandrea, N F Arnold, B M Dinelli, M Ridolfi and E Turunen, Seeking sprite-induced signatures in remotely sensed middle atmosphere NO2: latitude and time variations, IOP PUBLISHING Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 18 (2009) 034014 (10pp) doi:10.1088/0963-0252/18/3/034014 ( PDF 0.8 MB )

27. Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth, Characteristics of an African Easterly Wave Observed During NAMMA, Journal of Atmospheric Science (JAS) (accepted and in press), 2009. ( manuscript PDF 2.4 MB )

28. Sushil Kumar, Anil Deo, and V. Ramachandran, Nighttime D-region equivalent electron density determined from tweek sferics observed in the South Pacific Region, Earth Planets Space, 61, 905-911, 2009 ( PDF (0.3MB)

29. Colin Price, Mustafa Asfur and Yoav Yair, Maximum hurricane intensity preceded by increase in lightning frequency, Nature Geoscience Letters, Published Online: 6 APRIL 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO477 PDF 0.4 MB

30. Jeremy N. Thomas, Natalia N. Solorzano, Steven A. Cummer, and Robert H. Holzworth, Polarity and energetics of inner core lightning in three intense North Atlantic hurricanes, J. Geophysical Research, Oct 30, 2009, J. Geophys. Res. (2009JA014777) PDF 1.1MB

31. Eric J. Bucsela, Kenneth E. Pickering, Tabitha L. Huntemann, Ronald C. Cohen, Anne Perring, James F. Gleason, Richard J. Blakeslee, Rachel I. Albrecht, Robert Holzworth, James P. Cipriani, Dylana Vargas-Navarro, Ileana Mora-Segura, Alexia Pacheco-Hernandez, Sadi Lporte-Molina, Lightning-generated NOx seen by OMI during NASAs TC4 experiment, J. Geophys, Res (atmospheres) 2009JD013118R (accepted and in press), 2010 2.7 MB pdf

32. Orit Altaratz, Ilan Koren, Yoav Yair, and Colin Price, Lightning response to smoke from Amazonian fires, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, L07801, doi:10.1029/2010GL042679, 2010 PDF 0.4MB

33. Sergio F. Abarca, Kristen L. Corbosiero and Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., An evaluation of the Worldwide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) using the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) as ground truth, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 115, D18206, doi:10.1029/2009JD013411, 2010 PDF 1.2MB

34. Beirle, S., Huntrieser, H. and Wagner, T.: Direct satellite observation of lightning-produced NOx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10(22), 10965-10986, 2010. PDF 8.5MB

35. Abarca, S. F., K. L. Corbosiero, The World Wide Lightning Location Network and Convective Activity in Tropical Cyclones, Monthly Weather Review, V. 139, p. 175, 2011. PDF 5.5MB

36. D. Abreu, D. Chandan, R. H. Holzworth, and K. Strong, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1143-1153, 2010 (Copernicus Publications for EGU) PDF (1.5MB)

37. V. Connaughton, M. S. Briggs, R. H. Holzworth, M. L. Hutchins, G. J. Fishman, C. A. Wilson-Hodge, V. L. Chaplin, P. N. Bhat, J. Greiner, A. von Kienlin, R. M. Kippen, C. A. Meegan, W. S. Paciesas, R. D. Preece, E. Cramer, J. R. Dwyer, and D. M. Smith, Associations between Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor terrestrial gamma ray flashes and sferics from the World Wide Lightning Location Network, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 115, A12307, doi:10.1029/2010JA015681, 2010 PDF (6.9MB)

38. Kumar, V. V, M.L.Parkinson, P.L.Dyson and G.B.Burns, Thunderstorm-associated responses in the vertical motion of the mid-latitude F-region ionosphere, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics,71 (2009), pp.787-793 PDF 0.6 MB

39. Holzworth, R. H., M.P. McCarthy, R. F. Pfaff, A. R. Jacobson, W. L. Wilkerson and D. E. Rowland, Lightning-generated whistler waves observed by probes on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite at low latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A06306,doi:10.1029/2010JA016198, 2011. PDF 1.3MB

40. Serge Soula, Oscar van der Velde, Joan Montanya, Patrice Huet, Christelle Barthe, and Jozsef Bor, Gigantic Jets produced by an isolated tropical thunderstorm near Reunion Island, J. Geophysical Res., V.116,D19103, doi:10.1029/2010JD015581, 2011 PDF 3.7MB

41. PAN LunXiang, QIE XiuShu, LIU DongXia, WANG DongFang, and YANG Jing, The lightning activities in super typhoons over the Northwest Pacific, Sci China Earth Sci, 2010, 53: 1241-1248, doi: 10.1007/s11430-010-3034-z, PDF 1.0 MB

42. Smith, D. M., B. J. Hazelton, B. W. Grefenstette, J. R. Dwyer, R. H. Holzworth, and E. H. Lay, Terrestrial gamma ray flashes correlated to storm phase and tropopause height, J. of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, A00E49, doi:10.1029/2009JA014853, 2010 PDF 0.6MB

43. Virts, Katrina S., Joel A. Thornton, John M. Wallace, Michael L. Hutchins, Robert H. Holzworth, and Abram R. Jacobson, Daily, seasonal, and intraseasonal relationships between lightning and NO2 over the Maritime Continent, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL048578 (in press), 2011 PDF 0.9 MB and Supplemental Material 0.8 MB

44. Collier, A. B., T. Gjesteland, and N. Øtgaard (2011), Assessing the power law distribution of TGFs, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10320, doi:10.1029/2011JA016612 PDF 1MB

44b. Collier, A. B. and A. R. W. Hughes, Lightning and the African ITCZ, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73 (2011) 2392–2398 PDF 2.3 MB

45. Singh, Rajesh, B. Veenadhari, Ajeet K. Maurya, Morris B. Cohen, Sushil Kumar, R. Selvakumaran, P. Pant, Abhay K. Singh and Umran S. Inan, D-region ionosphere response to the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 deduced from ELF/VLF tweek observations in the Indian sector, J. Geophys. Res., V. 116, A10301, doi:10.1029/2011JA016641, 2011. PDF 2.9MB

46. Gjesteland, T.; stgaard, N.; Collier, A. B.; Carlson, B. E.; Cohen, M. B.; Lehtinen, N. G. Confining the angular distribution of terrestrial gamma ray flash emission J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 116, No. A11, A11313 PDF 0.4MB

47. Burgesser, Rodrigo E., Maria G. Nicora and Eldo E. Avila, Characterization of the lightning activity of "Relampago del Catatumbo", JASTP, Accepted and in press, 2012. PDF 1.1MB

48.Collier, A. B., Delport, B., Hughes, A. R. W., Lichtenberger, J., Steinbach, P., Oster, J., and Rodger, C. J. Correlation between global lightning and whistlers observed at Tihany, Hungary. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, A07210. doi:10.1029/2008JA013863,2009 PDF 1.4MB

49. Oster, J., Collier, A. B., Hughes, A. R. W., Blomberg, L. G., & Lichtenberger, J. Spatial correlation between lightning strikes and whistler observations from Tihany, Hungary. South African Journal of Science, 105(5-6), 234-237, 2009. PDF 0.5MB

50. Collier, A. B., Bremner, S., Lichtenberger, J., Downs, J. R., Rodger, C. J., Steinbach, P., & McDowell, G. (2010). Global lightning distribution and whistlers observed at Dunedin, New Zealand. Annales Geophysicae, 28(2), 499-513. doi:10.5194/angeo-28-499-2010 PDF 6.1MB

51. Collier, A. B., Lichtenberger, J., Clilverd, M. A., Steinbach, P., & Rodger, C. J., Source Region for Whistlers Detected at Rothera, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, A03219. doi:10.1029/2010JA016197, 2011. PDF 2.5MB

52. Hutchins, M.L., R. H. Holzworth, C. J. Rodger and J. B. Brundell, Far field power of lightning strokes as measured by the World Wide Lightning Location Network, JTech (J. Atmos. and Ocean. Tech. (AMS), V.29,1102-1110, 2012. JTech paper (9 MB PDF)

53. Gjesteland, T.; Øtgaard, N.; Collier, A. B.; Carlson, B. E.; Eyles, C.; Smith, D. M. A new method reveals more TGFs in the RHESSI data, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 39, No. 5, L05102, 07 March 2012 PDF 0.4MB

54. Bovalo, C., Barthe, C., and Bègue, N.: A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2659-2670, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-2659-2012, 2012. Full Article

55. Hutchins, M. L., R. H. Holzworth, J. B. Brundell, and C. J. Rodger, Relative Detection Earthciency of the World Wide Lightning Location Network, Radio Science, 2012RS005049, 2012 3.6 MB (pdf)

56. Briggs, M.S., G. S. Fishman, V. Connaughton, P. N. Bhat, W. S. Paciesas, R. D. Preece1, C. Wilson-Hodge, V. L. Chaplin, R. M. Kippen, A. von Kienlin, C. Meegan, E. Bissaldi, J. R. Dwyer, D. M. Smith, R. H. Holzworth, J. E. Grove and A. Chekhmann, First results on terrestrial gamma ray flashes from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, J. Geophys. Res, V. 115, A07323, doi:doi:10.1029/2009JA015242, 2010. 0.9MB (pdf)

57. Briggs, M. S. et al (25 authors), Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes in the Fermi Era: Improved Observations and Analysis Methods, J. Geophys. Res, (in press) 2012. 7.2 MB (pdf)

58. Connaughton, V., (24 authors), Radio signals from electron beams in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes, Geophys. Res. Letters, (accepted), 2012. 0.6MB (pdf)

59. Ajeet K. Maurya, B.Veenadhari, Rajesh Singh, Sushil Kumar, M. B. Cohen, R Selvakumaran, Sneha Gokani, P. Pant, A. K. Singh, Umran S Inan, Nighttime D-region electron density measurements from ELF-VLF tweek radio atmospherics recorded at low latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., In press, 2012 5.2MB (pdf)

60. Virts, Katrina S., John M. Wallace, Michaale L. Hutchins, and Robert H. Holzworth, A new ground-based, hourly global lightning climatology, BAMS (AMS), pp.1831-91, Sept 2013, ( DOI 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00082 ). 2.1MB (pdf)

61. Solorzano, N.N., J. N. Thomas, J. A. Weinman*, W. Keane, M. L. Hutchins and R. H. Holzworth, WWLLN lightning and satellite microwave radiometrics at 37 to 183 GHz: Implications for convection and thundercloud charging in the broad tropics, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121,12.298-318,doi:10.1002/ 2016JD025374,Sept 2016. 6.9 MB (pdf)

62. S. Xiong, M. S. Briggs, V. Connaughton, G. J. Fishman, D. Tierney, G. Fitzpatrick, S. Foley, S. Guiriec, R. H. Holzworth, and M. L. Hutchins, Location prediction of electron TGFs, J. Geophys., Res., V.117, A02309, doi:10.1029/2011JA017085, 2012., 6.2MB (pdf)

63. Michael A. Haddad, Vladimir A. Rakov, and Steven A. Cummer, New measurements of lightning electric fields in Florida: Waveform characteristics, interaction with the ionosphere, and peak current estimates, J. Geophys. Res., V. 117, D10101, doi:10.1029/2011JD017196, 2012. 2.5MB (pdf)

64. Kucienska, B., G. B. Raga, and R. Romero-Centeno, High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 2817-2852, 2012 (Under review), PDF or link.

65. De Boer, A. M., Collier, A. B., Caballero, R., 2013, Processes driving thunderstorms over the Agulhas Current, J. of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere. DOI:10.1002/jgrd.50238. PDF (3.4MB)

66. Holzworth, R. H. M. P. McCarthy, R. F. Pfaff, A. R. Jacobson, W. L. Willcockson, and D. E. Rowland, Lightning-generated whistler waves observed by probes on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite at low latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., V.116, A06306, doi:10.1029/2010JA016198, 2011 PDF 1.4MB

67. Hutchins, M.L. R. H. Holzworth, K. S. Virts, J. M. Wallace, and S. Heckman, Radiated VLF energy differences of land and oceanic lightning, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, 1-5, doi:10.1002/grl.50406, 2013, PDF (1.8MB)

68. Rudlosky, S. D. and D. T. Shea, Evaluating WWLLN performance relative to TRMM/LIS, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 40, 1-5, doi:10.1002/grl.50428, 2013, 0.6 MB PDF

69. Jacobson, A. R., R. H. Holzworth, R. F. Pfaff, and M. P. McCarthy, Study of oblique whistlers in the low-latitude ionosphere, jointly with the C/NOFS satellite and theWorld-Wide Lightning Location Network, Ann. Geophys., 29, 851-863, doi:10.5194/angeo-29-851-2011, 2011 2.9MB PDF

70. Burkholder, Brian S., Michael L. Hutchins, Michael P. McCarthy, Robert F. Pfaff, and Robert H. Holzworth, Attenuation of lightning-produced sferics in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and low-latitude ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., V. 118, 3692-3699,doi:10.1002/jgra.50351, 2013 Pdf 0.6MB

71. Hutchins, M. L. Abram R. Jacobson, Robert H. Holzworth and James B. Brundell, Azimuthal dependence of VLF propagation, J. Geophys. Res. V. 118, 1-5, doi 10.1002/jgra.50544, 2013 Pdf 0.5 MB

72. Kumar, Abhikesh and Sushil Kumar, Tracking of tropical cyclones and their intensity changes in the South Pacific region using World-wide lightning location network, Proceedings of Pacific Inter-Science Congress, USP, 2013 0.3 MB (PDF)

73. Hutchins, Michael L., Robert H. Holzworth, and James B. Brundell, Diurnal variation of the global electric circuit from clustered thunderstorms, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 119 (1), 620-629, DOI 10.1002/2013JA019593, Jan 2014 PDF

74. Reinhart, B.,H. Fuelberg, R. Blakesley, D. Mach, A. Heymsfield, A. Bansemer, S. L. Duren, S. Tanelli. G. Heymsfield and B. Lambrighsen, 2014: Understanding the relationships between lightning, cloud microphysics, and airborne radar-derived storm structure during Hurricane Karl (2010). Mon. Wea. Rev, 142, 590-605 PDF (2.6MB)

75. Heue,K.-P, H. Riede1, D. Walter1, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Wagner, U. Friess, U. Platt, A. Zahn, G. Stratmann, and H. Ziereis, CARIBIC DOAS observations of nitrous acid and formaldehyde in a large convective cloud, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.[doi:10.5194/acpd-13-24343-2013], 13, 24343-24403, 2013 PDF 1.6 MB

76. Kumar, A., S. Kumar, M. Hayakawa, F. Menk, Subionospheric VLF perturbations observed at low latitude associated with earthquake from Indonesia region, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 102 (2013) 71-80. PDF 2.9MB

77. Kumar, S. and A. Kumar, Lightning-associated VLF perturbations observed at low latitude: Occurrence and scattering characteristics, Earth Planets Space, 65, 25-37, 2013 PDF 0.8MB

78. Jacobson, Abram R., Robert H. Holzworth, Robert Pfaff, Roderick Heelis, and Patrick Colestock, A method to estimate whistler wave vector from polarization using three-component electric field data, Radio Science, V49, DOI 10.1002/2013RS005335, 31 JAN 2014 1.9 MB pdf

79. Garreaud, Rene D., M. Gabriela Nicora Rodrigo E. Burgesser, and Eldo E E. Avila, Lightning in Western Patagonia, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JD021160. 3.2MB

80. Claire Antel, Andrew B. Collier, János Lichtenberger, and Craig J. Rodger, Investigating Dunedin Whistlers using Volcanic Lightning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2014. DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060332

81. Iwasaki, H., Preliminary Study on Features of Lightning Discharge around Japan Using World Wide Lightning Location Network Data, SOLA, 2014, Vol. 10, 98-102, doi:10.2151/sola.2014-020, 4.9 MB (pdf)

82. Hobara, Yasuhide, Takahiro Inoue, Masashi Hayakawa and Kazuo Shiokawa, Deducing Locations and Charge Moment Changes of Lightning Discharges by ELF Network Observations in Japan, IEEJ Transactions on Power and Energy Vol.133 No.12 pp.994-1000 DOI: 10.1541/ieejpes.133.994, 2013. PDF (2.6MB)

Marisaldi, M., et al. (2014), Properties of terrestrial gamma ray flashes detected by AGILE MCAL below 30 MeV J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 1337-1355, doi:10.1002/2013JA019301 Feb 2014 PDF 1.0MB

Tristan James Hall ,The Transport of Ship Emissions in the Strait of Malacca Using a High-Resolution WRF Simulation and Low-Resolution Gdas Data Coupled with Hysplit, MS Thesis, Florida State University, April 2014. pdf (18MB !)

M. Gabriela Nicora a? , Eduardo J. Quel a, Rodrigo E. Büerb, Eldo E. Áilab, Alejandro Rosalesc,Jacobo O. Salvador d, RaúEliaa, LA ACTIVIDAD ELÉTRICA ATMOSFÉICA EN ARGENTINA. ESTIMACION DE LA TASA DE MORTALIDAD ANUAL POR ACCI DE CAIDAS DE RAYOS, ANALES AFA Vol. 25 N.4 (151-156), Nov 2014 PDF 033MB

Blanc, E., T. Farges, A. Le Pichon, and P. Heinrich, Ten year observations of gravity waves from thunderstorms in western Africa, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 6409-6418, doi:10.1002/, 2013JD020499 JUN 2014 PDF 1.3MB

BRAD REINHART,* HENRY FUELBERG,* RICHARD BLAKESLEE,1 DOUGLAS MACH,# ANDREW HEYMSFIELD,@ AARON BANSEMER,@ STEPHEN L. DURDEN,& SIMONE TANELLI,& GERALD HEYMSFIELD,** AND BJORN LAMBRIGTSEN, Understanding the Relationships between Lightning, Cloud Microphysics, and Airborne Radar-Derived Storm Structure during Hurricane Karl (2010), Monthly Weather Review, V. 142, pp.590-605, DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00008.1, 2014 PDF 2.6MB

Bovalo, C., C. Barthe, N. Yu, and N. Yu, and N. Begue(2014), Lightning activity within tropical cyclones in the South West Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 8231-8244, doi:10.1002/2014JD021651. PDF 0.9 MB

Augustin, Jehl, Thomas Farges and Elisabeth Blanc, Color pictures of sprites from non-dedicated observation on board the International Space Station, J. Geophys. Res.: SPACE PHYSICS, VOL. 118, 454-461, doi:10.1029/2012JA018144, 2013 . PDF 2.1MB

Østgaard, N., K. H. Albrecthsen, T. Gjesteland, and A. Collier, A new population of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes in the RHESSI data Geophys. Res. Lett., 10.1002/2015GL067064, 6 pp., 2015. PDF 0.5MB

Van Eaton, A. R., Á. Amigo, D. Bertin, L. G. Mastin, R. E. Giacosa, J. González, O. Valderrama, K. Fontijn, and S. A. Behnke (2016), Volcanic lightning and plume behavior reveal evolving hazards during the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco volcano, Chile, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL068076. (2016) Link

Soula, S., J. Kigotsi Kasereka, J. F. Georgis, C. Barthe, Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin, Atmospheric Research 178–179, pp. 304–31, 2016. 13 MB pdf file

Chronis, T., M. Briggs, G. Priftis, V. Connaughton, J. Brundell, R. Holzworth, S. Heckman, S. McBreen, G. Fitzpatrick, and M. Stanbro, 2016: Characteristics of Thunderstorms that produce Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00239.1, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society April 2016, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2016 PDF 6.1MB

Virts, Katrina S., John M. Wallace, Michael L. Hutchins, and Robert H. Holzworth,Diurnal and seasonal lightning variability over the Gulf Stream and the Gulf of Mexico, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-14-0233.1, 2015 5.8MB PDF

Permyakov, M. S., E. Yu. Potapova, , B. M. Shevtsov , N. V. Cherneva , and R.H. Holzworth, Thunderstorm Activity and the Structure of Tropical Cyclones, ISSN 10248560, Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics, 2015, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 485–490. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015 (Original Russian Text © M.S. Permyakov, E.Yu. Potapova, B.M. Shevtsov, N.V. Cherneva, R.H. Holzworth, @@, published in Optika Atmosfery i Okeana.)

Permyakov M.S., Kukarenko E.A, Potalova E.Yu., Permyakov M.S., Kukarenko E.A, Potalova E.Yu., Mochalov V.A., Shevtsov B.M., R.H. Holzworth, Mesoscale structure of tropical cyclones in the north-western part of the Pacific ocean according to the data of the WWLLN, 22nd International Symposium Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, edited by Gennadii G. Matvienko, Oleg A. Romanovskii, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 10035, 100355M · © 2016 SPIE · CCC code: 0277-786X/16/$18 · doi: 10.1117/12.2248525 0.3MB PDF

Hardman, Rachael, Mark A. Clilverd, Craig J. Rodger, James B. Brundell, Roger Duthie, Robert H. Holzworth, Ian R. Mann, David K. Milling, Eva Macusova, A case study of electron precipitation fluxes due to plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophysical, Res., V. 128(8), pp.6736-48, Aug 2015 PDF 3.1MB

Shevtsov, B. M., P. P. Firstov, N. V. Cherneva, R. H. Holzworth, and R. R. Akbashev, Lightning and electrical activity during the Shiveluch volcano eruption on 16 November 2014, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 3, 6745–6755, 2015 PDF 0.7 MB

Whittaker, I. C., E. Douma, C. J. Rodger, and T. J. C. H. Marshall (2015), A quantitative examination of lightning as a predictor of peak winds in tropical cyclones, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 3789–3801, doi:10.1002/2014JD022868. 1.4MB pdf

Zhang, W., Y. Zhang, D. Zheng, F. Wang, and L. Xu (2015), Relationship between lightning activity and tropical cyclone intensity over the northwest Pacific, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 4072–4089, doi:10.1002/2014JD022334. 1.9MB pdf

Zheng, H., R. H. Holzworth, J. B. Brundell, A. R. Jacobson, J. R. Wygant, G. B. Hospodarsky, F. S. Mozer, and J. Bonnell, A statistical study of whistler waves observed by Van Allen Probes (RBSP) and lightning detected by WWLLN, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA022010. (2016), PDF 4.6MB

Dixon, K., C. F. Mass, G. J. Hakim and R. H. Holzworth, The Impact of Lightning Data Assimilation on Deterministic and Ensemble Forecasts of Convection Events, JTech, V. 33, 1801-33, 2016. 21MB PDF

Jacobson, A. R., R. H. Holzworth, R. Pfaff, and R. Heelis (2016), Automated identification of discrete, lightninggenerated, multiple-dispersed whistler waves in C/NOFS-VEFI very low frequency observations, Radio Sci., 51, doi:10.1002/2016RS005989, August 2016 PDF 7.7MB

Mezentsev, A., N. Østgaard, T. Gjesteland, K. Albrechtsen, N. Lehtinen, M. Marisaldi, D. Smith, and S. Cummer (2016), Radio emissions from double RHESSI TGFs, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 8006–8022, doi:10.1002/2016JD025111. 1.5MB PDF

Roberts, O. J., G. Fitzpatrick, G. Priftis, K. Bedka, T. Chronis, S. McBreen, M. S. Briggs, E. Cramer, B. Mailyan, and M. Stanbro (2017), Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes due to particle acceleration in tropical storm systems, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 3374–3395, doi:10.1002/2016JD025799 4.9MB PDF

Amador, J. A., H. G. Hidalgo, E. J. Alfaro, A. M. Durán-Quesada, B. Calderón, N. Mora, and D. Arce, 2017: Central America [in "State of the Climate in 2016"]. _Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc._, 98 (8), S180-S183, doi:10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1. Pages 180-183 of 106 MB PDF

Guha, Anirban, Earle Williams, Robert Boldi, Gabriella Satori, Tamas Nagy, Jozsef Bor, Joan Montanya and Pascal Ortega, Aliasing of the Schumann resonance background signal by sprite-associated Q-bursts, JASTP, 165-166 (2017) 25-37, PDF 6.2MB

Burgesseur, Rodrigo E., Assessment of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) detection efficiency by comparison to the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 143: 2809–2817, October 2017 A DOI:10.1002/qj.3129

Baranovskiy, Nikolay V., Marina Yu. Belikova, Svetlana Yu. Karanina, Andrey V. Karanin, Alena V. Glebova, "Methods to estimate lightning activity using WWLLN and RS data", Proc. SPIE 10466, 23rd International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, 104665F (30 November 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2286780; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2286780

Gjesteland, T., N. Østgaard, P. Bitzer,and H. J. Christian (2017), On thetiming between terrestrial gammaray flashes, radio atmospherics,and optical lightning emission,J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics,122, 7734–7741, doi:10.1002/2017JA024285.

Kochkin, P., van Deursen, A. P. J.,Marisaldi, M., Ursi, A., de Boer,A.I.,Bardet,M.,Østgaard,N. (2017). In-flight observationof gamma ray glows by ILDAS.Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres,122, 12,801–12,811 https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027405

Inchin, Alexandr, Yuriy Shpadi, Anatoliy Lozbin, Maxim Shpadi, Pavel Inchin, Spatial-Temporal Distribution of the Lightning Strokes in Kazakhstan for Year 2016 Based on WWLLN Data, Geosciences, Vol. 7 No. 3, 2017, pp. 89-94. doi: 10.5923/j.geo.20170703.01

Suparta, Wayan and Zainudin, Siti Khalijah, Interaction Between Global Positioning System Tropospheric Delay and Lightning Strike Frequency , Advanced Science Letters, Volume 23, Number 2, February 2017, pp. 1366-1369(4), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.8386

Mlynarczyk, J., Kulak, A., and Salvador, J.(2017). The accuracy of radio directionfinding in the extremely low frequencyrange. Radio Science, 52, 1245–1252.https://doi.org/10.1002/2017RS006370

Lay, E. H. (2018). Ionospheric irregularities and acoustic/gravitywave activity above low-latitude thunderstorms. Geophysical Research Letters, 45,9097. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076058

Stevensono, Stephanie N., Kristen L. Corbosiero Mark DeMaria and onathan L. Vigh A 10-Year Survey of Tropical Cyclone Inner-Core Lightning Bursts and Their Relationship to Intensity Change, Weather and Forecasting (AMS), Feb 2018 DOI: 10.1175/WAF-D-17-0096.1, click here

Holzworth, R. H. et al, Global Distrbution of Superbolts, JGR Atmospheres, Accepted 8-16-19 (preprint) Ask Bob for copy of 'GlobalSuperbolts_JGR_accepted8-16-19.pdf'

Mialdea-Flor, I.; Segura-Garcia, J.; Felici-Castell, S.; Garcia-Pineda, M.; Alcaraz-Calero, J.M.; Navarro-Camba, E. Development of a Low-Cost IoT System for Lightning Strike Detection and Location. Electronics 20198, 1512 Click here

Koronczay, D., Lichtenberger, J.,Clilverd, M. A., Rodger, C. J., Lotz, S.I., Sannikov, D. V., et al. (2019). Thesource regions of whistlers.Journal of Geophysical Research: SpacePhysics, 124, 5082 to 5096. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA02655, Published online 4 JUL 2019 Click here for pdf

Okike, O., A.E. Umahi, Cosmic ray - global lightning causality, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 189, 2019, Link

Okike, O. (2019). Investigation of Forbush decreases and other solar/geophysical agents associated with lightning over the U.S. latitude band and the continental Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124. Link

Lin, Shu-Jeng and Kun-Hsuan Chou, The Lightning Distribution of Tropical Cyclones over the Western North Pacific, Monthly Weather Review, Vol 148, pp 4415-34, 2020. PDF

Ammar, A. and H. Ghalila, Estimation of nightime ionospheric D-region parameters using tweek atmospherics obsered for the first time in the North Afrcia region, Adv. Space Sci. (COSPAR) V. 66, pp. 2528-36, 2020 (See here)

Jacobson, A. R., Holzworth, R. H., & Brundell, J. B. (2021). Using the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to study Very Low Frequency transmission in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide: 1. Comparison with a full-wave model. Radio Science, 56, e2021RS007293. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021RS007293

Jacobson, A. R., Holzworth, R. H., & Brundell, J. B. (2022). Using the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to study Very Low Frequency transmission in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide: 2. Model test by patterns of detection/non-detection. Radio Science, 57, e2021RS007362. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021RS007362

Briggs, M. S., Lesage, S., Schultz, C., Mailyan, B., Holzworth, R. H. (2022), A terrestrial gamma ray flashfrom the 2022 Hunga Tonga volcanic eruption. Geophysical Research Letters, 49, 2022. e2022GL099660. PDF 0.5MB

Pan, Zengxin, Feiyue Mao, Daniel Rosenfeld, Yannian Zhu, Lin Zang, Xin Lu1, Joel A. Thornton, Robert H. Holzworth, Jianhua Yin , Avichay Efraim and Wei Gong, Coarse sea spray inhibits lightning, Nature Communications, (2022)13:4289 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31714-5

(note, above not in chronological order, quite. maybe sometime I'll do that. Bob)